Conventional Semen Analysis (Spermiogram)

Spermiogram: What is it?

Spermiogram and all laboratory sperm analyzes, both basic and specialized, are performed in accordance with internationally accepted principles of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other prominent international laboratory research centers (e.g. Strict morphology assessment criteria, as per Tygerberg).

The Laboratory scientists are always willing to provide the best service possible to all clients facing infertility problems. Throughout the whole procedure, beginning with the arrangement of the appointment until the delivery of the test results, they stand by the side of patients, ready to discuss with them in detail any question or requirement they may have.

A personalized approach to each individual case is of great significance, with particular emphasis given on its diagnostic needs. Depending on the requirements of each patient, either the basic examination may be performed (spermiogram and sperm morphology assessment) or a specialized sperm examination may be more suitable, in the form of an “examination package”.

  • The strong>conventional semen analysis defines primarily whether it is necessary to perform further investigation of the findings.It includes spermogram as well as the Sperm Morphology Assessment.
  • Thefull semenanalysis is a detailed overview of the condition of the sperm, providing clinical doctors with documented information, based on which, the therapeutic approach for each infertile man is decided.
    It includes the basic analysis (spermiogram and sperm morphology) as well as an isolation test of the best spermatozoa, and afterwards the study of their longevity in culture medium for 24 hours or more.

Laboratory Analyzes

The Laboratory complies with internationally acknowledged specifications (WHO, ESHRE-SIGA), based on which, proper laboratory examination of the sperm (spermiogram) is carried out through microscopic observation by experienced, well trained scientists without the use of automatic analyzers. The use of automatic analyzers does not enable proper examination and assessment of the sperm parameters. Technological systems cannot assess the nature of the sperm sample as accurately as the experienced human eye would in microscopic observation. Besides, ESHRE-SIGA (1997, 2010) does not recommend the use of analyzers in laboratory routines for the assessment of male sperm.

The spermogram is performed according to the guidelines of the WHO (2010) and the ESHRE-SIGA and includes the assessment of the following parameters:

  • Quantitative characteristics (semem volume, concentration and total number of spermatozoa)
  • Sperm motility in 4 categories (rapid progressive, slow progressive, non-progressive, immotility)
  • Sperm vitality
  • Microscopic findings (round cells, epithelial cells, red cells, bacteria)
  • Immunological features (agglutinations)

The normal values of a spermiogram, according to the World Health Organization, are available at the Normal Spermiogram Values in the Frequent Asked Questions section.

The assessment includes microscopic observation of at least 400 spermatozoa in permanent preparations, stained with Papanicolaou stain. The presence of any individual morphological deviation of one or more sections of the spermatozoon (head, midpiece, tail or cytoplasmic residues), which may indicate specific pathological disorders, is evaluated separately.

Microbiological semen examination

Biochemical seminal plasma examination

  • In spermatozoa
    • Acrosin
    • Creatine phosphokinase
  • In the seminal plasma
    • Prostate: acid phosphatase, citric acid, zinc
    • Epididymis: a-glycosidase
    • Seminal vesicles: fructose